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Everything you need to know about strings manipulation in Bash

Category: Shell Scripting

Date: August 2020
Views: 1.98K

One of the best things in Bash is the extensive tools we can use to manipulate strings. you can extract substrings , replace or delete them, and do much more.
This will be our string to manipulate for this tutorial:

#   0123456789.....
#   0-based indexing.

Get Length of string

echo ${#str}        #42

Get 5 chars starting from 0

echo ${str:0:5}      # /home

Get everything after the 5th char

echo ${str:5}      # /mosaid/Documents/Bash/

backward positioning: get the last 14 chars

we use parentheses or a space to delimit the negative sign for the position parameter when we are backward positioning:

echo ${str:(-14)}      #
echo ${str: -14}       #

substrings: forward search

remove everything before ( including ) the first occurrence of "Bash" :

echo ${str#*Bash}      # /

remove everything untill (and including) the last occurrence of "Bash" :

echo ${str##*Bash}      #

we can use the same to extract the extension: remove everything until the last dot "."
or to extract the file name from the path by removing everything untill the last "/":

echo ${str##*.}      # sh
echo ${str##*/}      #

substrings: backward search

starting from the end remove everything after (including) the word "Bash":

echo ${str%Bash*}      # /home/mosaid/Documents/Bash/

we can use it to extract the directory path :
starting from the end, removing everything after the first occurrence of "/"

echo ${str%%/*}      # /home/mosaid/Documents/Bash/

substrings: replace

first example : replace the first occurrence of "Bash" with "Shell Scripting"
second example: replace all occurrences of "Bash" with "Shell"

echo ${str/Bash/Shell Scripting}    # /home/mosaid/Documents/Shell Scripting/
echo ${str//Bash/Shell}             # /home/mosaid/Documents/Shell/

if we want to use the backward slash "/" as a pattern we need to escape it with a forward slash "\":
replace all "/" with "@"

echo ${str//\//@}       #

we can make some/all chars uppercase or lowercase:

str="Hello, Welcome to LINUX, Bash strings"

#convert the first char to uppercase
echo ${str^}

#convert all chars to uppercase
echo ${str^^}

#convert the characters c,s and m to uppercase
echo ${str^^[csm]}

#convert the first char to lowercase
echo ${str,}

#convert all chars to lowercase
echo ${str,,}

#convert the characters N,U and S to lowercase
echo ${str,,[NUS]}

delimit string and divide it into variables

Here, the delimitter (separator) is the comma ,

str="Hello, Welcome to LINUX, Bash strings"

IFS=, read -r x y z <<< "$str"

echo x = $x         # Hello
echo y = $y         # Welcome to LINUX
echo z = $z         # Bash strings

delimit string and divide it into an array

str="Hello, Welcome to LINUX, Bash strings"

IFS=, read -ra arr <<< "$str"

echo ${arr[0]}         # Hello
echo ${arr[1]}         # Welcome to LINUX
echo ${arr[2]}         # Bash strings

With these tools we can manipulate our strings in any way we want, however we might face a situation much complicated where these native Bash strings manipulation tools will not be sufficient, at this point we can use some much more powerful commands like sed or awk.


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